Athletes consume a lot of physical energy, especially during training. During this period, they can supplement nutrition from their diet. To improve the physical fitness of sports face requires scientific and healthy supplements. Generally speaking, athletes consume energy faster, so they need to supplement more protein foods and eat more grains and legumes.
What is the nutritional diet for athletes?
Overview of Athlete’s Recipe Athlete’s athletic ability not only depends on scientific training, health-preserving physical and mental quality, but also on good health and reasonable nutrition. Reasonable nutrition is the material basis of sports training. It is conducive to the smooth progress of the metabolic process and the regulation of organ function. It has a good effect on athletes’ functional status, physical fitness, recovery after exercise, and injury prevention. It also helps athletes fully Give full play to the training effect and competitive ability. Reasonable nutrition coupled with strict scientific training is the basic guarantee for creating excellent sports performance.
1. During training and competition, athletes with energy demand have high energy metabolism. The specific energy requirement mainly depends on the intensity, density and duration of the exercise. The total daily energy consumption of athletes consists of four parts: basal metabolism, exercise consumption, thermogenesis of food and other activities. The energy supply standard for athletes in my country is 50-60kcal/kg.
2. Protein intake provides sufficient high-quality protein, which is helpful for supplementing athletes' consumption, increasing muscle strength, and accelerating fatigue recovery. High-quality protein should account for more than 30% of the total protein intake, and a mixture of cereals and legumes should be used. The supply of protein is 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg.
3. Fat intake. Fat has high energy production and small size. It is an ideal form of energy storage for athletes. For moderate-intensity sports, the energy consumption in a short period of time comes from fat and carbohydrates. After an hour or more, the utilization of fat energy gradually increases. In endurance exercise, fat can provide about 80% of energy. Athletes should not consume too much fat from their diet, because fat is not easy to digest, and high oxygen consumption during metabolism will affect oxygen supply. The daily fat content in the diet of Chinese athletes should be 25% to 30% of the total energy.
4. Carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrates are the most ideal energy source for athletes. Because its molecular structure is simpler than protein and fat, it is easily absorbed by the body, consumes less oxygen during oxidation, and has high productivity. Appropriate supplementation of glucose before and during exercise will help maintain blood sugar levels during exercise. The carbohydrate supply of athletes should be 50-60% of the total energy, and the hypoxic exercise should be 65-70%.
5. The principle of fluid rehydration. Athletes’ fluid rehydration should be based on the athlete’s personal physique, sports training or competition conditions and environmental factors, as well as past experience, and rehydration in time. It is best to perform preventive rehydration before and during exercise to avoid dehydration and prevent the decline of exercise capacity; rehydration in time after exercise to promote recovery. The principle of fluid rehydration should be followed in small amounts and multiple times to avoid aggravating the burden on the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system caused by a large amount of fluid rehydration at one time. The total amount of fluid replacement must be greater than the total amount of water loss. Choose the right amount of sports drinks.
6. Intake of sodium, potassium, and magnesium. As sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium play an important role in maintaining nerve information transmission and muscle contraction, athletes sweat a lot, and the amount of sweat loss increases. The demand for magnesium is higher than that of ordinary people. The recommended daily intake of sodium, potassium, and magnesium for Chinese athletes are: sodium <5g (high temperature environment training <8g), potassium 3-4g, and magnesium 400-500g.
7. The intake of calcium, iron, and zinc is different in sports, and athletes have different calcium requirements. The recommended daily calcium intake for Chinese athletes is 1000～1500mg. For athletes in high-volume events, the upper limit of calcium intake during training or competition in a high-temperature environment can be considered, which is 1500 mg. Exercise speeds up the metabolism of iron and zinc, which affects the absorption of iron and zinc, and increases the excretion